Ep 2. Evidence-based teaching strategies with Paul Kirschner
The transcript for this episode is here.
Paul Kirschner’s blog
Books on teaching and learning
Kirschner, P., & Hendrick, C. (2020). How Learning Happens: Seminal Works in Educational Psychology and What They Mean in Practice (1st ed.). Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9780429061523
Kirschner, P., Hendrick, C., & Heal, J. (2022). How Teaching Happens: Seminal Works in Teaching and Teacher Effectiveness and What They Mean in Practice (1st ed.). Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9781003228165
Explicit instruction techniques
Clark, Richard & Kirschner, Paul & Sweller, J.. (2012). Putting students on the path to learning: The case for fully guided instruction. American Educator. 36. 6-11. https://www.aft.org/sites/default/files/Clark.pdf
Rosenshine, Barak. (2012). Principles of instruction: Research-based strategies all teachers should know. American Educator. 36.: 12-19. https://www.aft.org/sites/default/files/Rosenshine.pdf
Worked example effect
Gog, T. v., Rummel, N., & Renkl, A. (2019). Learning how to solve problems by studying examples. In J. Dunlosky & K. A. Rawson (Eds.), The Cambridge handbook of cognition and education (pp. 183–208). Cambridge University Press.
Desirable difficulties (spaced practice, retrieval practice, interleaving, contextual interference, reducing feedback)
Bjork, Elizabeth & Bjork, Robert. (2011). Making things hard on yourself, but in a good way: Creating desirable difficulties to enhance learning. Psychology and the Real World: Essays Illustrating Fundamental Contributions to Society. 56-64.
Making things hard on yourself but in a good way: creating desirable difficulties to enhance learning https://bjorklab.psych.ucla.edu/wp-content/uploads/sites/13/2016/04/EBjork_RBjork_2011.pdf
Engagement is a poor proxy for learning
Slides from Robert Coe: https://www.ibo.org/globalassets/new-structure/conferences/2015/pdfs/robert-coe.pdf
Inaugural Lecture Robert Coe:
Myth: Discovery learning (inquiry-based learning) is the best way to learn
Paul A. Kirschner, John Sweller & Richard E. Clark (2006) Why Minimal Guidance During Instruction Does Not Work: An Analysis of the Failure of Constructivist, Discovery, Problem-Based, Experiential, and Inquiry-Based Teaching, Educational Psychologist, 41:2, 75-86, https://doi.org/10.1207/s15326985ep4102_1
Kirschner, P. A. (2009). Epistemology or pedagogy, that is the question. In S. Tobias & T. M. Duffy (Eds.), Constructivist instruction: Success or failure? (pp. 144–157). Routledge/Taylor & Francis Group. https://www.academia.edu/3941293/Epistemology_or_pedagogy_that_is_the_question
Mayer RE. Should there be a three-strikes rule against pure discovery learning? The case for guided methods of instruction. Am Psychol. 2004 Jan;59(1):14-9. doi: 10.1037/0003-066X.59.1.14. PMID: 14736316. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/14736316/
Myth: You learn to solve problems by problem-solving
Sweller, J., Clark, R., & Kirschner, P. A. (2010). Mathematical ability relies on knowledge, Too. American Educator, 34(4), 34-35.
Sweller, J. & Clark, R. & Kirschner, P. (2011). Teaching general problem solving does not lead to mathematical skills or knowledge. European Mathematical Society Newsletter. 79. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/239856549_Teaching_general_problem_solving_does_not_lead_to_mathematical_skills_or_knowledge
Chi, M. T. H., Feltovich, P. J., & Glaser, R. (1979). Categorization and representation of physics problems by experts and novices. Cognitive Science 5, 121-152. https://doi.org/10.1207/s15516709cog0502_2 Available from: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/epdf/10.1207/s15516709cog0502_2