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Ep 17. Do timed tests cause math anxiety? with Robin Codding

The transcript for this episode is here.

The Science of Math website 


The Science of Math


How math anxiety is assessed

Barroso, Ganley, C. M., McGraw, A. L., Geer, E. A., Hart, S. A., & Daucourt, M. C. (2021). A meta-analysis of the relation between math anxiety and math achievement. Psychological Bulletin, 147(2), 134–168. 


Timed vs. untimed conditions and math anxiety


Burns, M. K., VanDerHeyden, A. M., & Jiban, C. (2006). Assessing the instructional level for mathematics: A comparison of methods. School Psychology Review, 35(3), 401-418.

Maki, K., Zaslofsky, A., & Codding, R. S. (2023). Factors influencing math anxiety. In K. Maki (Chair), Connecting the dots between math anxiety and math performance. Symposium presented at the annual meeting of the National Association of School Psychologists, (NASP), Denver, Co.

Namkung, J., Peng, P., & Lin, X. (2019). The Relation Between Mathematics Anxiety and Mathematics Performance Among School-Aged Students: A Meta-Analysis. Review of Educational Research, 89(3), 459–496.


Tsui, J. M., & Mazzocco, M. M. (2007). Effects of Math Anxiety and Perfectionism on Timed Versus Untimed Math Testing in Mathematically Gifted Sixth Graders. Roeper Review: A Journal on Gifted Education, 29(2), 132–139.

Topics students should be fluent in for success in problem-solving and algebra


National Math Advisory Panel Final Report 


Carr, M., & Alexeev, N. (2011). Fluency, accuracy, and gender predict developmental trajectories of arithmetic strategies. Journal of Educational Psychology, 103(3), 617–631. 

Fuchs L.S., Gilbert J. K., Powell, S. R., Cirino,  P. T., Fuchs, D., Hamlett, C. L., Seethaler, P.M., & Tolar, T.D. (2016). The role of cognitive processes, foundational math skill, and calculation accuracy and fluency in word-problem solving versus prealgebraic knowledge. Developmental Psychology, 52(12), 2085–2098.

Hansen, N., Jordan, N.C., & Rodrigues, J. (2017). Identifying learning difficulties with fractions: A longitudinal study of student growth from third through sixth grade. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 50, 45-59. 


Jordan, N. C., Hansen, N., Fuchs, L. S., Siegler, R. S., Gersten, R., & Micklos, D. (2013). Developmental predictors of fraction concepts and procedures. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 116(1), 45–58.


Namkung, J. M., Fuchs, L. S., & Koziol, N. (2018). Does initial learning about the meaning of fractions present similar challenges for students with and without adequate whole-number skill? Learning and Individual Differences, 61, 151–157. 


Resnick, I., Jordan, N. C., Hansen, N., Rajan, V., Rodrigues, J., Siegler, R. S., & Fuchs, L. S. (2016). Developmental growth trajectories in understanding of fraction magnitude from fourth through sixth grade. Developmental Psychology, 52(5), 746–757.


Ye, A., Resnick, I., Hansen, N., Rodrigues, J., Rinne, L., Jordan, N. C. (2016). Pathways to fraction learning: Numerical abilities mediate the relation between early cognitive competencies and later fraction knowledge, Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 52, 242-263.


Relationship between conceptual and procedural understanding


Rittle-Johnson B., Koedinger K. (2009). Iterating between lessons on concepts and procedures can improve mathematics knowledge. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 79(3), 483–500.

Rittle-Johnson, B., & Schneider, M. (2015). Developing conceptual and procedural knowledge of mathematics. In R. C. Kadosh & A. Dowker (Eds.), Oxford Handbook of Numerical Cognition (pp. 1118-1134). Oxford University Press.


Running, C., R. S., Varma, S., Rao, V. N. V, & Wackerle-Hollman, A. (2023). Comparing the Effects of Concepts-First and Iterative Fraction Instruction Sequences: A Randomized Controlled Trial. The Elementary School Journal, 124(1), 85–108.

Amount of practice required for fluency

Burns, M. K., Ysseldyke, J., Nelson, P. M., & Kanive, R. (2015). Number of repetitions required to retain single-digit multiplication math facts for elementary students. School Psychology Quarterly: The Official Journal of the Division of School Psychology, American Psychological Association, 30(3), 398–405. 


Causes of math anxiety


Codding, R. S., VanDerHeyden, A., & Chehayeb, R. (2023). Using Data to Intensify Math Instruction: An Evaluation of the Instructional Hierarchy. Remedial and Special Education.

Lau, N.T.T., Hawes, Z., Tremblay, P., & Ansari, D. (2022). Disentangling the individual and contextual effects of math anxiety: A global perspective. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - PNAS, 119(7).

Luttenberger, S., Wimmer, S., & Paechter, M. (2018). Spotlight on math anxiety. Psychology Research and Behavior Management, 11, 311–322. 

Philosophy-based instruction vs. evidence-based instruction


Codding, R. S., Peltier, C., & Campbell, J. (2023). Introducing the Science of Math. Teaching Exceptional Children.


Lilienfeld, S. O., Lynn, S. J., & Lohr, J. M. (2015). Science and pseudoscience in clinical psychology: Initial thoughts, reflections, and considerations. In S. O. Lilienfeld, S. J. Lynn, & J. M. Lohr (Eds.), Science and Pseudoscience in Clinical Psychology (pp. 1–16). The Guilford Press.

Peltier C., Peltier T. K., Hott B. L., Heuer A., Werthen T. (2021). “Trends Come and Go”: Early childhood rural special education teachers’ use of reported practices during mathematics instruction. Rural Special Education Quarterly, 40(4), 214 225.

Peltier, C. , Peltier, T. K., Werthen, T., & Heuer, A. (2020). State standards and IEP goals A lot of TPT Products: What Resources Early Childhood Educators Report Using to Plan Mathematics Instruction. Learning Disabilities: A Contemporary Journal, 18(2),  153-166.

Vanderheyden, A., & Codding, R. (2020). Belief-based versus evidence-based math assessment and instruction: What school psychologists need to know to improve student outcomes. NASP Communique, 48(5).


Resources for teachers

Assisting Students Struggling with Mathematics: Response to Intervention for Elementary and Middle Schools

National Center on Intensive Intervention

The IRIS Center

Credit to Jazmin Boisclair for this helpful resource page.

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