Ep 17. Do timed tests cause math anxiety? with Robin Codding
The transcript for this episode is here.
The Science of Math website
How math anxiety is assessed
Barroso, Ganley, C. M., McGraw, A. L., Geer, E. A., Hart, S. A., & Daucourt, M. C. (2021). A meta-analysis of the relation between math anxiety and math achievement. Psychological Bulletin, 147(2), 134–168. https://doi.org/10.1037/bul0000307
Timed vs. untimed conditions and math anxiety
Burns, M. K., VanDerHeyden, A. M., & Jiban, C. (2006). Assessing the instructional level for mathematics: A comparison of methods. School Psychology Review, 35(3), 401-418. https://doi.org/10.1080/02796015.2006.12087975
Maki, K., Zaslofsky, A., & Codding, R. S. (2023). Factors influencing math anxiety. In K. Maki (Chair), Connecting the dots between math anxiety and math performance. Symposium presented at the annual meeting of the National Association of School Psychologists, (NASP), Denver, Co.
Namkung, J., Peng, P., & Lin, X. (2019). The Relation Between Mathematics Anxiety and Mathematics Performance Among School-Aged Students: A Meta-Analysis. Review of Educational Research, 89(3), 459–496. https://doi.org/10.3102/0034654319843494
Tsui, J. M., & Mazzocco, M. M. (2007). Effects of Math Anxiety and Perfectionism on Timed Versus Untimed Math Testing in Mathematically Gifted Sixth Graders. Roeper Review: A Journal on Gifted Education, 29(2), 132–139. https://doi.org/10.1080/02783190709554397
Topics students should be fluent in for success in problem-solving and algebra
Carr, M., & Alexeev, N. (2011). Fluency, accuracy, and gender predict developmental trajectories of arithmetic strategies. Journal of Educational Psychology, 103(3), 617–631. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0023864
Fuchs L.S., Gilbert J. K., Powell, S. R., Cirino, P. T., Fuchs, D., Hamlett, C. L., Seethaler, P.M., & Tolar, T.D. (2016). The role of cognitive processes, foundational math skill, and calculation accuracy and fluency in word-problem solving versus prealgebraic knowledge. Developmental Psychology, 52(12), 2085–2098. https://doi.org/10.1037/dev0000227
Hansen, N., Jordan, N.C., & Rodrigues, J. (2017). Identifying learning difficulties with fractions: A longitudinal study of student growth from third through sixth grade. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 50, 45-59. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cedpsych.2015.11.002
Jordan, N. C., Hansen, N., Fuchs, L. S., Siegler, R. S., Gersten, R., & Micklos, D. (2013). Developmental predictors of fraction concepts and procedures. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 116(1), 45–58. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jecp.2013.02.001
Namkung, J. M., Fuchs, L. S., & Koziol, N. (2018). Does initial learning about the meaning of fractions present similar challenges for students with and without adequate whole-number skill? Learning and Individual Differences, 61, 151–157. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lindif.2017.11.018
Resnick, I., Jordan, N. C., Hansen, N., Rajan, V., Rodrigues, J., Siegler, R. S., & Fuchs, L. S. (2016). Developmental growth trajectories in understanding of fraction magnitude from fourth through sixth grade. Developmental Psychology, 52(5), 746–757. https://doi.org/10.1037/dev0000102
Ye, A., Resnick, I., Hansen, N., Rodrigues, J., Rinne, L., Jordan, N. C. (2016). Pathways to fraction learning: Numerical abilities mediate the relation between early cognitive competencies and later fraction knowledge, Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 52, 242-263. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jecp.2016.08.001
Relationship between conceptual and procedural understanding
Rittle-Johnson B., Koedinger K. (2009). Iterating between lessons on concepts and procedures can improve mathematics knowledge. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 79(3), 483–500. https://doi.org/10.1348/000709908X398106
Rittle-Johnson, B., & Schneider, M. (2015). Developing conceptual and procedural knowledge of mathematics. In R. C. Kadosh & A. Dowker (Eds.), Oxford Handbook of Numerical Cognition (pp. 1118-1134). Oxford University Press. https://doi.org/10.1093/oxfordhb/9780199642342.013.014
Running, C., R. S., Varma, S., Rao, V. N. V, & Wackerle-Hollman, A. (2023). Comparing the Effects of Concepts-First and Iterative Fraction Instruction Sequences: A Randomized Controlled Trial. The Elementary School Journal, 124(1), 85–108. https://doi.org/10.1086/725730
Amount of practice required for fluency
Burns, M. K., Ysseldyke, J., Nelson, P. M., & Kanive, R. (2015). Number of repetitions required to retain single-digit multiplication math facts for elementary students. School Psychology Quarterly: The Official Journal of the Division of School Psychology, American Psychological Association, 30(3), 398–405. https://doi.org/10.1037/spq0000097
Causes of math anxiety
Codding, R. S., VanDerHeyden, A., & Chehayeb, R. (2023). Using Data to Intensify Math Instruction: An Evaluation of the Instructional Hierarchy. Remedial and Special Education. https://doi.org/10.1177/07419325231194354
Lau, N.T.T., Hawes, Z., Tremblay, P., & Ansari, D. (2022). Disentangling the individual and contextual effects of math anxiety: A global perspective. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - PNAS, 119(7). https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2115855119
Luttenberger, S., Wimmer, S., & Paechter, M. (2018). Spotlight on math anxiety. Psychology Research and Behavior Management, 11, 311–322. https://doi.org/10.2147/PRBM.S141421
Philosophy-based instruction vs. evidence-based instruction
Codding, R. S., Peltier, C., & Campbell, J. (2023). Introducing the Science of Math. Teaching Exceptional Children. https://doi.org/10.1177/00400599221121721
Lilienfeld, S. O., Lynn, S. J., & Lohr, J. M. (2015). Science and pseudoscience in clinical psychology: Initial thoughts, reflections, and considerations. In S. O. Lilienfeld, S. J. Lynn, & J. M. Lohr (Eds.), Science and Pseudoscience in Clinical Psychology (pp. 1–16). The Guilford Press.
Peltier C., Peltier T. K., Hott B. L., Heuer A., Werthen T. (2021). “Trends Come and Go”: Early childhood rural special education teachers’ use of reported practices during mathematics instruction. Rural Special Education Quarterly, 40(4), 214 225. https://doi.org/10.1177%2F87568705211027981
Peltier, C. , Peltier, T. K., Werthen, T., & Heuer, A. (2020). State standards and IEP goals A lot of TPT Products: What Resources Early Childhood Educators Report Using to Plan Mathematics Instruction. Learning Disabilities: A Contemporary Journal, 18(2), 153-166.
Vanderheyden, A., & Codding, R. (2020). Belief-based versus evidence-based math assessment and instruction: What school psychologists need to know to improve student outcomes. NASP Communique, 48(5).
Resources for teachers
Credit to Jazmin Boisclair for this helpful resource page.